Social media and animals in tourism

The power of social media

Millions of travelers share their experiences trough social media. Data generated online can take various forms (e.g. comments, reviews, blog posts, tweets, pictures, videos and vlogs). This type of data is usually referred to as user-generated content or traveller-generated content.

If we consider the amount of user-generated content, social media becomes a valuable source of information for understanding consumer values. As a growing public discussion, animal welfare in tourism is well-represented in social media.

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

Studying animal-based tourism in social media

Here, we aim to understand consumer values by looking into user-generated content related to animal-based tourism services in Lapland. To that end, we rely on visual (video, pictures) and textual (comments, reviews) content. We use data created in 2016-2018 and collected from Facebook, Instagram, TripAdvisor and YouTube. We use content analysis to analyze the data. The study was conducted by Dominika Klos, one of our students from the Master’s Degree Programme “Tourism, Culture and International Management” (TourCIM), PhD José-Carlos García-Rosell and PhD Minni Haanpää.

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

TripAdvisor: a key discussion channel

We identified 208 reviews in TripAdvisor and 113 pictures and 30 videos in other social media channels. As a result, we can position TripAdvisor as one of the leading social media channels for discussions about animal-based tourism in Lapland. Tourists write the reviews to share their experience and often comment on the quality of life of working animals in Lapland.

Figure: Types of content

Animal welfare in the spotlight

Animal welfare was the largest topic of discussion identified in the study. We identified a total of 331 comments related to the welfare of animals such as sled dogs and reindeer. Nevertheless, we should stress that most comments focused on sled dogs. We found out that discussions on animal welfare focused on a wide range of issues related to the life and treatment of animals. For example, we identified discussions revolving around issues such as care, health, work, chains, animal facilities, ethics and the retirement of animals.

Figure: Animal welfare related issues

With our study, we show that tourists using animal-based tourism services pay a lot of attention to different aspects of animal welfare. Although we can see a general interest in how animals are treated, tourists were also concerned about their working conditions and their future retirement. Tourists, who were more concerned about animal welfare, contacted the companies directly. Indeed, they did careful online research before booking the service.

If you want to know more about the study, you are warmly welcome to read the full report HERE.

 

Text: José-Carlos García-Rosell

 

 

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Animal Tourism Finland goes Mallorca

Last week, I was in Palma as part of an Erasmus teacher exchange. During my visit, I gave two lectures about the use of animals in tourism at the University of the Balearic Islands (UIB). In the lectures, I talked about the relationship between consumer values and animal welfare within a tourism context. I based my lectures on the research done in the project “Animals and Responsible Tourism” and “Animal Welfare in Tourism Services”.

Animals in Mallorca

Although animal-based tourism activities could be one the reasons for visiting a tourism destination, this may not be the case of the Balearic Islands. Nevertheless, animals are clearly part of the experiences of many tourists spending their holidays on these Mediterranean Islands. Animal-based attraction such as marine parks, aquariums and zoos are part of the marketing material and street view of most Balearic towns. In particular, tourism companies are targeting these attractions to families traveling with children. Also scuba diving, which is popular among some tourists, should not be forgotten. After all, it is as animal-based activity whereby marine fauna become an essential part of the underwater experience.

 

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

City tours on Galeras

Another popular animal-based activity, which one can see in most towns, is the horse carriages or so called “Galeras”. The Galeras usually operate in the historic city centers. When I asked the students to think about animal welfare in relation to the Balearic Islands, the first thing that came to their mind was the Galeras. The students were concerned about the welfare of the horses working under challenging conditions. Concerned citizens have publicly been debating this issue in Palma.

Indeed, over the last years several horse deaths and accidents have happened on the streets of this Mediterranean destination. The horses have to trot over hard surface (pavement, stone) and deal with high temperatures, particularly, during the summer months. Without appropriate watering and feeding, these horses suffered of dehydration and undernourishment. There also seems to be no control over the number of working hours and amount of weight to be pulled by the animals.

 

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

 

We can ask ourselves the following questions: Can the local government guarantee the welfare of horses through stricter regulation? Or does this case demand the absolute ban of the Galeras?  There is indeed a movement collecting firms to stop the galeras in Palma, Mallorca. The movement is called “Stop Galeras”. This movement form part of global criticism on the use of horses for tourism activities in cities. We can see similar discussions taken place in cities like Montreal, New York and Melbourne. According to the criticism, horses do not belong on city streets. A city environment with traffic and crowd of people is already detrimental to the welfare of any horse.

 

Text: José-Carlos García-Rosell

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Lapland tourists’ views on animal welfare

Studying the views of Lapland tourists on animal welfare

During June 2016 and February 2017, we conducted a study aiming to explore the attitudes of Lapland tourists towards animals and animal-based tourism. To that end , we use a semi-structured survey based on cluster sampling. Data collection took place in Rovaniemi and mostly in the premises of the Rovaniemi Airport. We focused mainly on the departures of charter flights. In that way, we were able to get a representative sample of the tourists coming from the most important target markets of Lapland. We selected the respondents randomly. We conducted the survey in six different languages: Finnish, English, German, Russian and Mandarin. A total of 601 tourists from more than 20 different countries participated in the survey. The study was part of the project “Animal welfare in tourism services”.

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

How important animals are to Lapland tourists?

We found out that animals play an important role in attracting people to Lapland. Indeed, 68% of the tourists surveyed said that animal-based tourism activities were an important reason for visiting Lapland. We also found out that 83% of the tourists were concerned about the rights and treatment of animals in today’s society. This finding is consistent with the results of the Eurobarometer on animal welfare 2016. According to it, 89% of European citizens believe that there should be an EU-legislation that obliges people to care for animals used for commercial purposes. The majority of tourism considered that animals should not be maltreated under any circumstances. Only few respondents saw animals as tourism objects that should be always visible and easy to photograph.

 

In addition, we found out that the staff and marketing channels of animal-based tourism companies play a important role in providing information about animal welfare. Also the respondents stressed the role of local tourism information offices in communicating about animal welfare. If you are interested in reading more about the study, you can access the full report HERE. Although we can say that the majority of Lapland tourists are concern about the welfare of animals working in tourism, we could identify a group of customers that are particularly concerned about the issue. We call this group “ethical consumers”. We have conducted interviews with them to study their values and how they influence their tourism consumption. In addition, we have conducted a social media analysis focusing on animal welfare in Lapland tourism. We will publish these studies in the coming months.

 

Text: J.C. García-Rosell

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Animals in the Nordic Travel Fair 2018

Nordic Travel Fair 2018

For a second year in a row, we were in the The Nordic Travel Fair held at the Helsinki’s Expo and Convention Center. The event counts with more than 1000 exhibitors from 80 different countries. As a travel event, it offers an excellent space for discovering new products, services and business partners. Moreover, it is a place for discussing the late developments in the Finnish and global tourism industry. The event took place between January 18-21. The first day is exclusively reserved for travel professionals and the rest of the days is open for the public in general. Also in 2018, we could see that animals continue to play an important role in the fair. Pictures and shapes of animals could be found in the different corners of the travel fair.

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

In this post, we want to talk about the arrival of the the Pandas in Finland and our public discussion on “Ethical Business and Animals” at the Nordic Travel Fair.

The pandas finally arrived!

The pandas Hua Bao and  Jin Baobao arrived in Helsinkin on January 18. They were received by the Chinese ambassador to Finland and Finnish officials. In the Nordic travel fair, we could see the presence of the pandas in the stands of China and the Ähtäri Zoo. In fact, the pandas are seen not only as an act of friendship between China and Finland, but also as an economic opportunity for the town of Ähtäri.

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

Although some have celebrated the arrival of the pandas, some have also showed concerns about their introduction to Ähtäri Zoo. The arrival of the pandas has been surrounded by a lot of discussion in the Finnish media. Indeed, it can be seen as a backward step in terms of ethics by a society that is becoming more sensitive to issues related to animal rights and welfare. As a result, Ähtäri zoo might be taking a risk by hosting the pandas. In an interview with Radio Suomi (18.1.), Minni Haanpää talked about the pandas in relation to ethical tourism. Listen to the interview in Finnish here (starts at minute 27:55).

Ethical business and animals

In the Nordic Travel Fair, J.C. García-Rosell and Minni Haanpää moderated a discussion on ethical tourism consumption and animals. They invited representatives from three different sectors to take part in the discussion.They were Pasi Ikonen (Hetta Huskies), Salla Tuomivaara (The Finnish Nature League) and Mia Halmén (The Finnish Association for Fair Tourism). The discussion was followed by consumers and tourism practitioners.

Photo: Sissi Korhonen

In particular, we want to draw attention to three issues that were highlighted in the discussion. First, the growing interest in animals in society. Indeed, this is not just phenomenon limited to the West, but something that can be seen in different parts of the world. For example, in China, there is also a growing social movement for animal rights and welfare. Second, ethical consumption is colorful and evolving. As a result, ethical consumers cannot be categorized under one and the same group. Third, ethical business demands transparency and continuous interaction with consumers. Only so we can reach the degree of trust that is expected by ethical consumers. Next time, we will write about the views of Lapland tourists on animals working in tourism. So, Stay tuned!

 

Text: J.C. García-Rosell

 

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Animal Tourism Finland goes UK!

During the first week of September, Animal Tourism Finland visited the UK. The main reason for the trip was to take part in the conference “The Visitor Economy: Strategies and Innovations” organized by Bournemouth University. The conference included a track on animals and tourism. The session was organized by Prof. Susanna Curtin (Bournemouth University) and Prof. David Fennell (Brock University). After the conference we traveled to London to meet with Hugh Felton and Clare Jenkinson from the Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA). Animal Tourism Finland was represented by J.C. García-Rosell, Tarja Salmela and Mikko Äijälä.

Animals and tourism

The conference track on animals and tourism invited discussions on the interaction between people and animals in tourism settings. As such, it aimed to draw attention to the growth of animal-based tourism activities, the spectrum of tourists’ perceptions of animal attractions and examples of poor and good practice.

The presentations

There were six presentations in the track. Three of them were delivered by Animal Tourism Finland researchers. Indeed, Tarja Salmela, Mikko Äijälä and J.C. García-Rosell presented a paper titled “Insights into the Certification of Animal Welfare in Tourism”. The presentation was based on the results presented in the report “Quality Monitoring Practices in Animal-Based Tourism”. In his presentation “Animal Agency in Tourism: Sled dogs in Finnish Lapland”, Mikko Äijälä discussed the role and agency of sled dogs in a tourism context. J.C. García-Rosell and Prof. Philip Hancock (Essex Business School) presented a paper titled “Christmas Tourism and the Cultivation and Symbolism of Lapland’s Reindeer”. The paper offers some reflections on the emergence of the Lapland reindeer as an economic resource, both as a carnally appropriated raw material, and as a mythical beast of Christmas folklore.

Prof. Susanna Curtin presented a paper titled  “Morally torn but aesthetically persuaded: Why zoos are still attractive”. Her presentation drew attention to the current attitudes of tourists towards animal-based attractions such as zoos and marine parks. Rie Usui (Hiroshima University) delivered a presentation called “Investigating animal ethics and wildlife management issues at a nature-based tourism setting”. Her presentations offers moral reflections on current wildlife management practices implemented in Yakushima Island, Japan. Also Clare Jenkinson (ABTA Senior Destinations & Sustainability Manager) took part in the track by given a presentation on ABTA policies and actions concerning animal-based tourism. If you would like to read more about the presentations included in the track, please check out the conference proceedings.

Sustainability in practice: TUI and ABTA

In the conference, there was also a track focusing on practical implementation of sustainability. TUI and ABTA were two of the tourism organizations represented in this track. Clare Jenkinson (Senior Destinations & Sustainability Manager, ABTA) offered an overview of the work done by ABTA concerning sustainability issues. She also emphasized the role of partnerships with destination governments in promoting more sustainable practices. Similarly, Jane Ashton (Director of Sustainable Development, TUI) talked about how TUI is tackling sustainability in a globalized tourism industry. She drew especial attention to TUI sustainability strategy for 2020 “Better Holidays, Better World” and how it has been driven by company values, investors, consumers and other stakeholders.

Visit to ABTA

After the conference, Animal Tourism Finland headed to London to meet Hugh Felton (Senior Sustainable Tourism Executive) and Clare Jenkinson (Senior Destinations & Sustainability Manager) at the ABTA headquarters. The meeting was an excellent opportunity for sharing experiences on animal-based tourism. Indeed, we were able not only to tell about our work in Lapland, but also to familiarize ourselves with ABTA’s initiatives. One of them is The Global Welfare Guidance for Animals in Tourism, which are available to ABTA Members and their suppliers. So, if your company is doing business with an ABTA member, you can have access to these guidelines. You just have to ask your ABTA client to make them available to you.

The ABTA Animal welfare guidelines consist of six manuals which provide a set of minimum requirements designed to assist in improving animal welfare as well as phasing out poor practice. For animal-based tourism companies in Lapland, the manuals focusing on working animals and wildlife viewing are the most interesting ones. For example, the manual on working animals includes some welfare criteria for sled dogs. Through the animal welfare guidelines, ABTA aims to make sure that animals used in tourism are treated humanely, with respect and in accordance with transparent and robust animal welfare standards.

 

Text: JC García-Rosell

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Ethical tourism consumption and animals

Animals in tourism -seminar

On June 12, 2017, we organized a seminar that brought together a group of experts to share knowledge and exchange experiences about the notion of responsible consumption in relation to animal-based tourism. Researcher Maria Pecoraro (University of Jyväskylä), Travel Writer and Editor Vicki Brown (Responsible Travel) and Professor Anu Valtonen (University of Lapland) were among the key note presenters. Also Minni Haanpää and Tarja Salmela from our research team presented preliminary findings of our ongoing studies. In this post, we want to offer an overview of the main arguments and ideas presented in the key notes.

Ethical consumption and animal welfare

In her key note, Maria Pecoraro focused on discussing ethical consumption in relation to animal welfare. She started her speech by drawing attention to the attitudes of Europeans towards animal welfare. Indeed, according to the Eurobarometer on Animal Welfare 2016, 89% of European citizens believes there should be EU legislation that oblige people to care for animals used for commercial purposes. Although the document focuses particularly on farm animals, it has also implications for animals used in tourism.

Pecoraro stressed that ethical consumption is a dynamic and contextual phenomenon, involving different meanings, values and ideologies.  She also drew attention to how producers and consumers may approach animal welfare differently. Producers may view it as an issue related to performance and productivity. For consumers, on the other hand, animal welfare may be more about empathy with the emotions and feelings of non-human animals.

 

Photo: Jaana Ojuva

 

Responsible tourism in practice

Vicki Brown stressed that the idea of “responsible travel” doesn’t refer to a niche market of ethical consumers. On contrary, it is mainstream, reaching a large consumer base. To make her point, she used the example of “Undercover Tourists” – a BBC TV show watched by millions of people in the UK. In the show, undercover wildlife activists travel to holiday destinations to investigate cases  of animal abuse. She also discussed how public interest in the impacts of tourism on society and animals is reflected in the success of  documentary films such as Gringo Trails, Black Fish, and Blood Lions.

Contemporary consumers are better informed, and expects their service providers to act responsibly. If their expectations are not met, they may express and share their dissatisfaction in social media spaces. Furthermore, responsibility requires collaborating not only with consumers, but also with different stakeholder such as non-governmental organizations and the media. To learn more about Vicki Brown’s experiences in the seminar and Rovaniemi, read the post “Responsible travel goes to the Arctic Circle”.

 

Photo: Jaana Ojuva

 

Ethics: the in- and outsiders

In her key note, Anu Valtonen offered an overview of consumer research focusing on human-animal relations. As she pointed out, most attention has been given to the relationship between humans and pets, farm animals and animals used in entertainment. In this discussions, moral reflections have revolved around the welfare and rights of animals as well as the ethics of hunting and fishing. So, large, charismatic and attractive animals (e.g. bears, lions, reindeer) have been at the spotlight of this debate. Which animals have been left out? What about mosquitoes and other insects?, Valtonen asked provocatively.

Despite the role of these small animals in society, they have been totally neglected when discussing human-animal relations. Even though they may have a huge impact on our daily consumption habits.  For example, in Lapland mosquitoes influence tourists and their activities. According to Valtonen, the study of animal-relations have been biased by western ideology that it is not shared by other societies. Indeed, she drew attention to the role play by insects in Asian societies. For example, Young-Sook Lee and colleagues showed in their study “Evidence for a South Korean Model of Ecotourism” how insects were seen as the main attraction in ecotourism sites in South Korea.

 

Photo: Jaana Ojuva

 

Encounters: Animals in tourism consumption

Minni Haanpää and Tarja Salmela pointed out that the target group of Finland “Modern Humanist” is more or less based on ethical consumerism. Ethical and value-driven consumption is particularly made explicit in human-animal encounters. Hence, there is a need to better understand who the ethical consumers are and what they expect from animal-based tourism service providers. The answer is not simple as ethical consumers are not an homogenus group. As Haanpää and Salmela stressed, ethical consumers have different roles, expectations and values. Their consumption doesn’t follow rational patterns, rather it is context dependent. For example, travel companion, destination and previous experiences can determine ethical consumption in a given time and space.

As a result, Haanpää and Salmela prefer to talk about perspectives on  ethical consumerism rather than types of ethical consumers. In their research on ethical consumerism in animal-based tourism services, they identified three perspectives: indifference towards animals, ethical treatment of animals and conscious rejection of animal-based services. These three perspectives determine the consumption or non-consumption of animal-based tourism services.

 

Photo: Jaana Ojuva

 

The seminar received positive feedback from the speakers and the audience. According to the audience, the seminar was useful for understanding the connection between animals and ethical consumption. In particular, the dialogue between industry representatives and academicians was seen as fruitful and rewarding.

 

Text: J.C. García-Rosell

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Whale watching with sustainability principles – Elding

Certified whale watching

This post includes a short interview with Sveinn H. GuðmundssonElding’s Quality and Environmental Manager. I met Sveinn during my visit to Iceland in early May. We talked about responsible whale watching and the role of environmental certifications and labels in promoting it. In fact, Elding – adventures at sea follows EarthCheck and Blue Flag’s standards along with IceWhale’s guidelines. The company has also been strongly committed to the “Meet Us Don´t Eat Us” campaign which has aimed to take whale meat off the menu for tourists. As a joint project between IFAW (International Fund for Animal Welfare) and IceWhale (the Association of Icelandic Whale Watchers), the campaign “Meet Us Don´t Eat Us,” has been around since summer 2010.

 

Photo: JC García-Rosell

 

Supporting research and responsible tourism practices

In addition to these standards and guidelines, Elding takes part in international cooperation on the future of whale watching. The company has also strong cooperation with marine biologists and wildlife researchers . Sveinn also mentioned that Elding is the first and only environmentally certified whale watching company in Iceland. According to Sveinn environmental certifications are an useful tool for managing Elding’s operations in a responsible way.

Elding also takes seriously its educational role in tourism. During the tours, Elding’s guides not only explain about the whales, but also how toutists themselves can support responsible tourism practices. For example, they make tourists aware that whale meat is not part of Icelandic traditional gastronomy. The campaign “Meet Us Don´t Eat Us,” has actually contributed to the decrease of whale meat among tourists.

During my visit to Iceland, I joined once more a whale watching tour with Elding. It was my second time. We were able to see minke whales, dolphins, puffins and other birds. Unfortunately, I couldn’t get a shot of the minke whale. They were to fasts for me. Nevertheless, the dolphins stayed with us for a while.

Sveinn H. Guðmundsson will be one of the speakers in this year’s Lapland Tourism Parliament. The event will take place in Rovaniemi at the University of Lapland on September 21-22, 2017. So you may have the possibility to meet Sveinn in person and share some thoughts with him.

 

 

Text: JC García-Rosell

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The value of animals in society

The value of animals in society

“Valuable animal” – seminar

What kind of moral, economic and cultural values are related to other animals than humans? How do the values given to animals influence the way they are treated? These questions were addressed in the Finnish Human-Animal Studies seminar “Valuable Animal”. The seminar is organized every year by the Finnish Society for Human−Animal Studies – a society promoting research on human−animal relations in social sciences and humanities in Finland. The seminar was held in the House of Science and Letters in Helsinki on April 24th and 25th. It invited researchers across Finland to discuss the value of animals in contemporary society. The abstracts of the seminar are available here (in Finnish). Animal Tourism Finland was there to present findings from studies conducted in the projects “Animals and Responsible Tourism” and “Animal Welfare and Tourism Services”.

 

Photo: Vesa Markuksela

 

Seminar key notes

Animal welfare in the market

Minna Kaljonen from the Finnish Environment Institute started the seminar with a key note focusing on the evaluation practices of animal welfare in the marketplace. Although the focus was on farm animals, her speech reflected some of the practices used to evaluate the welfare of animals working in tourism. Kaljonen argued that animal welfare cannot be considered as ‘singular’ and its evaluation as straight-forward. Indeed, animal welfare is evaluated differently in different types of markets. Furthermore, she stressed that to understand and enhance animal welfare in consumer markets we must turn towards the market to explore it instead of simply criticizing it.

 

Photo: JC García-Rosell

 

Emotions, attention and affective animal ethics

The second day of the seminar started with philosopher Elisa Aaltola’s key note on emotions, attention and affective animal ethics. In her speech, she drew attention to animal ethics as a discussion dominated by the rational tradition. The affective turn, which has been recognized in multiple fields of study, challenges rational thinking by stressing the role of emotions – such as anger, guilt, fear and disgust – in moral philosophy. Together with cultural stereotypes, which influence the way we related to other animals, emotions form the basis for intuition and moral deliberation. At the same time, she explained how attentiveness provides a means to declare to ourselves, and to others, what emotions we wish to enhance. In fact, affective moral agency offers an opportunity to promote empathy towards all types of animals.

 

Photo: JC García-Rosell

 

Animal Tourism Finland’s presentations

Next a short overview of the presentations delivered by the Animal Tourism Finland research team.

[Humananimal] – disrupting the boundaries

Tarja Salmela-Leppänen gave a presentation titled “[Humananimal] – disrupting the boundaries (and the potential within)”. In the presentation, she drew attention to the deep, moral problem in the creation of an exclusionary boundary between human and non-human animals. She also stressed the vastly unrecognized agency of more-than-human animals in organizational inquiry. This boundary has led to neglecting non-human organizational members or even reducing them to mere economic resources. This boundary has far-reaching consequences as it shapes the way more-than-human animals are treated and considered in society. With the help of a visual presentation, Salmela-Leppänen gave room for the recognition of the animality within us.  By acknowledging humans as animals, she questioned premises that may justify the privilege of one type of animal over other.

 

Photo: JC García-Rosell

 

The value of animals in Lapland tourism

Mikko Äijälä, JC García-Rosell and Maria Hakkarainen presented “The Value of Animals in Lapland Tourism”. The presentation offered preliminary findings from interviews conducted with animal-based tourism companies and destination marketing organizations in Lapland. The study shows that the value of animals is discussed in relation to different tourism practices such as animal care, customer safety, animal welfare expertise, the law and tourism marketing. In addition, the value of animals is stressed when companies compare their animal welfare practices to the practices of other companies or destinations. By viewing animals as individuals, certain types of values are attached to them. In general, the presentation showed how intrinsic and instrumental values are emphasized in talks about animals used in tourism.

 

Photo: Tarja Salmela-Leppänen

 

As a whole, we think that the conference provided a valuable opportunity to network with researches across Finland with expertise in societal animal studies. The Animal Tourism Finland research team is eagerly waiting to participate in the first international Human-Animal Studies conference to be held in Turku, Finland in 2018. In the video below, Salmela-Leppänen offers a brief overview of the seminar.

 

 

Text: Tarja Salmela-Leppänen and José-Carlos Garcia-Rosell

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Animals in Tourism Studies

This post and the video below are based on the article “Literature Review: Animals as part of Tourism” – an outcome of the project “Animal Welfare in Tourism Services”.  The article was published in Finnish in the Finnish Journal of Tourism Research.  The study was conducted by Mikko Äijälä, JC García-Rosell and Minni Haanpää. “The main objectives of the literature review was to gain a better understanding of human-animal encounters in tourism studies.”

 Animals in Tourism

 Animals play a key role in the creation of tourism and leisure experiences. They have become icons and symbols of destinations around the world. Tourism is another significant industry that has turned animals into organizational resources to achieve economic goals. It is not surprising that concern for animal rights and welfare has been growing among tourism scholars and the public in general. From this perspective, tourism offers an excellent empirical context for the theoretical problematization of human-animal encounters.

Huskies
Photo: JC García-Rosell

Searching for animal-related tourism studies

We conducted a search in a data based called Hospitality & Tourism Complete in order to identify tourism and hospitality studies focusing on animals. To that end, we used the search word “animal*”. We were able to identified a total number of 77 relevant articles. We complemented this sample of articles with other literature sources (e.g. books, dissertations). We found out that most of the studies were published between 2000 and 2016.

Three main research perspectives

Through the review, we determined that human-animal encounters in tourism studies have been discussed from three major perspectives:

  • Ethical perspective: This perspective deals with the moral deliberation about the use of animals in tourism. Three ethical theories are highlighted: Eco-centrism, utilitarianism (animal welfare) and animal rights.
  • Consumer perspective: This perspective approaches animals from the point of view of tourists. This stream of literature focuses on the attitudes towards animals, the role of animals in creating tourism experiences and the educational value of animal encounters.
  • Management perspectives: This perspective focuses on the management of spaces inhabited by animals (e.g. zoos, national parks, wildlife areas). It also draws attention to the coordination of different activities (e.g. hunting, bird watching, hiking) within the same physical space.

In general, most studies have focused on evaluating the role of animals in the production of different tourism experiences, as well as their rights and welfare in relation to the work they perform. These studies were located in Asia, Africa and Australia. Zoos and wildlife have also been a popular research focus. Few studies have examined animal agency as a part of human-animal tourism encounters. Also few attention has been given to the animal-based activities in a Nordic context.

Text: JC García-Rosell

 
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Global Code of Ethics for Tourism: Lacking a position on animal welfare

Global Code of Ethics for Tourism: Lacking a position on animal welfare

Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism was adopted by the General Assembly of the World Tourism Organization in 1999 and recognized by the United Nations in 2001. Although the Code is not legally binding, it features a frame of reference for the responsible development of tourism in the world. As a voluntary implementation mechanism, it contributes to minimizing the negative impacts of tourism on the environment and society while maximizing the benefits for people living in tourism destinations.

The Code includes 10 articles covering the economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects of tourism and hospitality:

1: Tourism’s contribution to mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societies
2: Tourism as a vehicle for individual and collective fulfillment
3: Tourism, a factor of sustainable development
4: Tourism, a user of the cultural heritage of mankind and contributor to its enhancement
5: Tourism, a beneficial activity for host countries and communities
6: Obligations of stakeholders in tourism development
7: Right to tourism
8: Liberty of tourist movements
9: Rights of the workers and entrepreneurs in the tourism industry
10: Implementation of the principles of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

The Global Code of Ethics plays a key role in the development of responsible tourism. Despite of the importance of animals in tourism, none of the articles made reference to animals and their welfare.

Article 11 on animal welfare

Professor David Fennell from Brock University has critically evaluated the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism as a frame of reference for responsible tourism. As he argues, the Code fails to fully address the notion of responsible tourism. By neglecting the needs of millions of animals used in the tourism industry for human entertainment and benefit, the Code fails to fully address the notion of responsible tourism. As he points out “being responsible means taking care of both human and animal needs”.

As a result, Professor Fennell recommends that the World Tourism Organization reconvene to amend the Code by adding Article 11 “Respect and welfare of animals used in the tourism industry”. In doing so, Article 11 takes into consideration the welfare needs of wild and domesticated animals according to seven principles (for a detailed overview see Fennell 2016). These principles draw attention to the working conditions of animals, proper welfare standards, confinement of animals for human entertainment and practices that inflict suffering on animals among others. A good overview of this discussion and Article 11 is presented in the video below. The video is base on a presentation given by Professor Fennell at Canisius College for the Ecotourism Symposium on January 18, 2015.

 

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