Animal-based tourism in Lapland

The role of animals in Nordic tourism

Animals have become a very important part of tourism and leisure experiences of tourist visiting the Nordic countries. Animals play different roles in tourism. They can be in captivity ( zoos), in the wild (bear watching) or as as part of tourism activities (horseback riding). The picture of animals or human-animal encounters have become common in the marketing and promotion material of Nordic destinations.

For example, the marketing campaigns of Finland, Norway and Sweden include animals to a greater extent. By taking a glance at Visit Finland, Visit Norway and Visiting Sweden travel portals, one will soon notice the images of wildlife animals, horses, huskies and reindeer among other. These images become stronger and more prevalent as soon as we look for further northern destinations such as Northern Norway, Swedish Lapland and Finnish Lapland. Reindeer and huskies are not only represented as one of the main attractions, but they have also become an important branding element of these places. Indeed, it’s difficult to imagine a visit to Lapland without huskies or reindeer.

 

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

Huskies, reindeer and horses in Lapland

Although the tourism industry in Lapland is aware of the significance of animals, there was a lack of knowledge about the current situation of animal-based tourism services. How many animal-based tourism companies are operating in Lapland? Which and how many animals are used in the creation of tourism experiences? Where are these animals situated? What is the economic impact of animal-based tourism services? In the project, Animal Welfare in Tourism Services, we conducted a study to find out answers to these questions.

This study identified a total of 158 animal-based tourism service firms in Lapland. A total of 53 firms offered services such as hunting, fishing and wildlife watching. We were able to locate 42 husky, 34 reindeer and 11 equestrian farms. These companies are well-distributed across Lapland.

Although the turnover of animal-based tourism services represents 2,4 % of the total turnover of  the Lapland tourism industry, these services play still an major role in the economy of Lapland.  Indeed, they bring value to local tourism brands and attract hundreds of thousands of tourists to Lapland. From this perspective, we clearly see that animals have an impact on the turnover of tourism programme service companies, restaurants and hotels. For example, we identified 42 destination management organizations (DMO) in Lapland, which do not own animals, but the sales of animal-based tourism services represent a significant share of their annual turnover.  Indeed, we can argued that animal-based tourism services have a considerably direct and indirect impact on Lapland’s economy.

A more detailed report of the study is available HERE.

Text: J.C. García-Rosell

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Lapland tourists’ views on animal welfare

Studying the views of Lapland tourists on animal welfare

During June 2016 and February 2017, we conducted a study aiming to explore the attitudes of Lapland tourists towards animals and animal-based tourism. To that end , we use a semi-structured survey based on cluster sampling. Data collection took place in Rovaniemi and mostly in the premises of the Rovaniemi Airport. We focused mainly on the departures of charter flights. In that way, we were able to get a representative sample of the tourists coming from the most important target markets of Lapland. We selected the respondents randomly. We conducted the survey in six different languages: Finnish, English, German, Russian and Mandarin. A total of 601 tourists from more than 20 different countries participated in the survey. The study was part of the project “Animal welfare in tourism services”.

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

How important animals are to Lapland tourists?

We found out that animals play an important role in attracting people to Lapland. Indeed, 68% of the tourists surveyed said that animal-based tourism activities were an important reason for visiting Lapland. We also found out that 83% of the tourists were concerned about the rights and treatment of animals in today’s society. This finding is consistent with the results of the Eurobarometer on animal welfare 2016. According to it, 89% of European citizens believe that there should be an EU-legislation that obliges people to care for animals used for commercial purposes. The majority of tourism considered that animals should not be maltreated under any circumstances. Only few respondents saw animals as tourism objects that should be always visible and easy to photograph.

 

In addition, we found out that the staff and marketing channels of animal-based tourism companies play a important role in providing information about animal welfare. Also the respondents stressed the role of local tourism information offices in communicating about animal welfare. If you are interested in reading more about the study, you can access the full report HERE. Although we can say that the majority of Lapland tourists are concern about the welfare of animals working in tourism, we could identify a group of customers that are particularly concerned about the issue. We call this group “ethical consumers”. We have conducted interviews with them to study their values and how they influence their tourism consumption. In addition, we have conducted a social media analysis focusing on animal welfare in Lapland tourism. We will publish these studies in the coming months.

 

Text: J.C. García-Rosell

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Animals in the Nordic Travel Fair 2018

Nordic Travel Fair 2018

For a second year in a row, we were in the The Nordic Travel Fair held at the Helsinki’s Expo and Convention Center. The event counts with more than 1000 exhibitors from 80 different countries. As a travel event, it offers an excellent space for discovering new products, services and business partners. Moreover, it is a place for discussing the late developments in the Finnish and global tourism industry. The event took place between January 18-21. The first day is exclusively reserved for travel professionals and the rest of the days is open for the public in general. Also in 2018, we could see that animals continue to play an important role in the fair. Pictures and shapes of animals could be found in the different corners of the travel fair.

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

In this post, we want to talk about the arrival of the the Pandas in Finland and our public discussion on “Ethical Business and Animals” at the Nordic Travel Fair.

The pandas finally arrived!

The pandas Hua Bao and  Jin Baobao arrived in Helsinkin on January 18. They were received by the Chinese ambassador to Finland and Finnish officials. In the Nordic travel fair, we could see the presence of the pandas in the stands of China and the Ähtäri Zoo. In fact, the pandas are seen not only as an act of friendship between China and Finland, but also as an economic opportunity for the town of Ähtäri.

Photo: J.C. García-Rosell

Although some have celebrated the arrival of the pandas, some have also showed concerns about their introduction to Ähtäri Zoo. The arrival of the pandas has been surrounded by a lot of discussion in the Finnish media. Indeed, it can be seen as a backward step in terms of ethics by a society that is becoming more sensitive to issues related to animal rights and welfare. As a result, Ähtäri zoo might be taking a risk by hosting the pandas. In an interview with Radio Suomi (18.1.), Minni Haanpää talked about the pandas in relation to ethical tourism. Listen to the interview in Finnish here (starts at minute 27:55).

Ethical business and animals

In the Nordic Travel Fair, J.C. García-Rosell and Minni Haanpää moderated a discussion on ethical tourism consumption and animals. They invited representatives from three different sectors to take part in the discussion.They were Pasi Ikonen (Hetta Huskies), Salla Tuomivaara (The Finnish Nature League) and Mia Halmén (The Finnish Association for Fair Tourism). The discussion was followed by consumers and tourism practitioners.

Photo: Sissi Korhonen

In particular, we want to draw attention to three issues that were highlighted in the discussion. First, the growing interest in animals in society. Indeed, this is not just phenomenon limited to the West, but something that can be seen in different parts of the world. For example, in China, there is also a growing social movement for animal rights and welfare. Second, ethical consumption is colorful and evolving. As a result, ethical consumers cannot be categorized under one and the same group. Third, ethical business demands transparency and continuous interaction with consumers. Only so we can reach the degree of trust that is expected by ethical consumers. Next time, we will write about the views of Lapland tourists on animals working in tourism. So, Stay tuned!

 

Text: J.C. García-Rosell

 

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Auditing animal welfare in tourism

Recently, some international tour operators have been conducting animal welfare audits in animal-based tourism companies located in Lapland. This is the first time that animal welfare audits are conducted in Finnish animal-based tourism companies. The audits help the tour operators to ensure that their suppliers are operating according to their animal welfare policies.  Most of these animal welfare policies are based on the “Global Welfare Guidance for Animals in Tourism” defined by the Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA). Our expert José-Carlos García-Rosell was able to join one of the audits conducted in one of our project companies in December 2017.

What is the animal welfare audit about?

The idea of the audit is that a team of auditors is assigned with the task to assess the welfare of animals working in tourism. The auditors can work for the tour operator or an inspection company contracted for the assignment. The auditors assess the welfare of animals according to a given criteria. The companies to be audited are contacted in advance to set a time for the visit. Usually, the auditors have a list of the companies and premises to be contacted for the audits. These companies have usually a contract with the tour operator requesting the audit. In some cases, contractors of the supplier of the tour operator could also be asked to be audited. For example, the audit can be carried out in an animal-based tourism company selling services to a destination management company that has a contract with the tour operator.

Photo: JC García-Rosell

The audit can take between 2 and 5 hours. It depends on the location, type of animals, company size and premises to be audited.  The auditors go through an interview guide together with representatives of the company being audited. They also visit the animal premises and may even take part in some of the activities offered by the company. The interview material is supported by visual material (pictures and videos) made during the on-site visit. After some weeks, the audited company is informed about the results of the audit. The audits are an important tool for the tour operators, as it allows them to gather information on the quality of animal-based services they sell. For an overview of different auditing practices check our report “Quality monitoring practices in animal-based tourism”.

How do the audits work in Lapland?

The animal welfare audits have been designed to be used in different animal tourism services and attractions. This can be seen as a strength and a weakness. By using global animal welfare criteria, the audits face some limitations in considering the specific needs of different animal species and the way they are used in particular tourism contexts. For instance, sled dogs and elephants are common animals used in tourism, but they have totally different needs and requirements. Nevertheless, similar audit criteria may be applied to both animal species. Furthermore, since most audits have initially been developed for assessing the welfare of captive wild animals (elephants, dolphins, etc.) , it tends to stress the needs of those animals in the evaluation. This causes some challenges for assessing animal welfare in Lapland tourism.

Photo: JC García-Rosell

For example, one audit criterion may consider as negative if the skin of an animal is scratched or bleeding. Although this is important, it disregards the fact that reindeer rubs the antlers against hard surfaces to get the skin off in the late autumn. So blood in the antlers of reindeer is quite normal at that time of the year. Another criterion may require that animals are provided with a shelter, which is self-evident in other animal species. Nevertheless, this does not concern reindeer. As semi-wild animals, reindeer do not need shelter in the winter. Their hair is hollow which insulates them from the cold temperatures.

Auditing criteria may also see the chaining of animals as negative. In the case of sled dogs, a tether can sometimes be a better option for the dog than a kennel. Similarly, the audits may lack more specific criteria that is necessary for guaranteeing the welfare of reindeer and sled dogs.

What to conclude?

The fact that there are some limitations in the audits does not mean that they are not beneficial or needed. On the contrary, we should be appreciative that we have animal welfare guidelines in the tourism industry and that tour operators are conducting these audits. These first audits clearly indicate that animal welfare in tourism is becoming an important issue for both companies and consumers. Indeed, there will be an increase in the number of animal welfare audits conducted in the near future.

These first auditing experiences open new possibilities for developing an animal welfare criteria that are suitable for the animals working in Lapland tourism. This is part of the work we are doing in the last phase of our project. We are doing this work in cooperation with local companies, international tour operators and experts in the fields of responsible tourism and animal welfare. As a whole, this will support our local companies in developing their animal welfare policies and business operation in a way that benefit both the animals and the industry.

 

Text: José-Carlos García-Rosell and Mikko Äijälä.

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Towards good animal-based tourism practices in Lapland

Launching the process of action and research

In August 2017, we started an action research (AR) process that aims to produce and disseminate good practices concerning animal welfare. The focus is mainly on sled dogs, reindeer and horses. To that end, we invited our project companies to engage in a dialogue with each other and other stakeholders. Indeed, we want to create a fertile ground for the development of future animal welfare monitoring practices for the tourism industry in Lapland. The AR process consists of a planning, acting, observing and reflecting phase that will be implemented between August 2017 and April 2018. We illustrate the AR process and multi-stakeholder dialogue in the images below.

 

Small workshops on sled dogs, reindeer and horses

As the first step of the AR process, we invited the project companies to join a small workshop to discuss about animal welfare in relation to their own operations. In total, we organized four small workshops during August-October 2017. We divided the workshops according to animal species. Indeed, two workshops focused on sled dogs, one on reindeer and one on horses. The workshops took place in Muonio, Rovaniemi and Kuusamo. The discussions in the workshops were guided by – but not limited to – three main themes: information sharing, monitoring and the link between employees’ well-being and animal welfare. We identified these themes during previous studies conducted in the project. We audio-recorded all meetings. Then, we carefully examined and summarized the discussions from the meetings into a report.

 

Photos: JC García-Rosell & Tarja Salmela

Large workshop with companies and external experts

As second step of the AR process, we organized a large workshop in Rovaniemi on October 21, 2017. We invited the project companies and and key stakeholder representatives to join us in the event. The aim of the large workshop was to discuss the outcomes of the small workshops and receive feedback from stakeholders with expertise in animal welfare and responsible tourism. Indeed, we counted with the participation of representatives of two international tourism companies: Meike Witt (Exploring Iceland) and Vicki Brown (Responsible Travel). Also Satu Raussi (The Finnish Centre for Animal Welfare) and Kati Pulli (Finnish Federation for Animal Welfare Associations) joined us to share their expertise on animal welfare. Finally, Mia Halmén (The Finnish Association for Fair Tourism) took part in the workshop as a responsible tourism expert. Before joining the workshop, these representatives read the report from the small workshops.

What next?

In the workshops, we were able to exchange ideas and views on how and what kind of practices should be developed for monitoring the welfare of sled dogs, reindeer and horses. In the next months, we will focus on developing a set of guidelines for animal welfare communication and questions for auditing animal welfare in tourism companies operating in Lapland. Furthermore, we will use these guidelines for performing animal welfare auditing simulations in some of the project companies. Meike Witt already helped us to develop questions for assessing the animal welfare practices of horse stables. We will keep reporting on the AR process. So stay tuned!

In the video below, Tarja Salmela and Meike Witt send some greetings and briefly tell about the work done so far.

 

 

Text: J.C. García-Rosell

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Animals at work in Lapland

An article titled “Animals at Work”, which discusses animal welfare in tourism, was included in the latest Rovakaira’s customer magazine (in Finnish).  Rovakaira is one of the energy suppliers in Finnish Lapland. The article was written by Mia Sivula. The text is based on interviews with Miia Merkku (Arctic Reindeer) and Päivi Hiukka (Polar Lights Tours). Miia and Päivi are two of the entrepreneurs involved in the projects “Animals and Responsible Tourism” and “Animal Welfare in Tourism Services”.

The article introduces both projects and the work done by the University of Lapland and the Lapland University of Applied Sciences on  animal welfare in tourism. In the article, Mia Sivula draws attention to two important issues surrounding the animal welfare discussion in tourism: customer education and an animal-center perspective.

Customer education

As stated in the article, tourists are usually not familiar with the animals working in Lapland tourism. Indeed, most visitors are unaware of the living conditions and needs of animals such as huskies and reindeer. As a result, there is a need to educate visitors on the animals they may interact with during their visit. As Miia Merkku explains, they have to teach tourists reindeer manners as they teach human manners to reindeer. In fact, a better awareness of the animals may lead to greater welfare and tourist experiences.

Photo: JC García-Rosell

 

An animal-center perspective

In order to guarantee the well-being of the animals, it is is important that service provider put animals first. Customer should not always be king when it comes to animal-based tourism services. For example, Miia Merkku has many times said no to the request from customers to get inside the reindeer fence. As she explains, the fence area is the reindeer home and where they can just be among themselves. They have a right to their own private sphere. Also for Päivi Hiukka the well-being of their dogs come first and she expects the same attitude from their customers.

 

Photo: Polar Lights Tours

 

Text: JC García-Rosell (based on the article written by Mia Sivula)

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Animal tourism work

At the beginning of November, we helped organize a seminar focusing on well-being at work in tourism. Animal tourism work was included in the seminar programme (in Finnish).  We cannot neglect animals when discussing well-being in relation to tourism work. Indeed, tourism work is performed by both people and animals. As David Fennell (2012) explains, animals perform different form of labor (e.g. pulling, carrying) that contributes to tourism experiences in unique settings. Furthermore, in our project, we have identified a clear relationship between the well-being of workers and animals laboring in animal-based tourism firms. The animal welfare presentations in the seminar were giving by Mikko Äijälä, Outi Kähkönen and Miia Merkku from Arctic Reindeer. The presentation can be found here.

Animal tourism work in Lapland

Tourism work in Lapland touches the lives of thousands of humans and animals. In fact, many of the services sold to tourists are based on animals such as huskies, reindeer and horses among other species. In Particular, huskies and reindeer are popular among international tourists. Sled dog and reindeer safaris are usually among the top 10 things to do in Lapland. Last year sled dog safaris overcame snow mobile safaris as the most popular winter activity. Snow mobiles were on the top since its introduction in the late 1980s. Now sled dog safaris are in and growing very fast.

The organization and execution of these safaris demand trained staff who knows how to work with the animals. In Lapland, there are around 2000 tourism workers working directly with animals. The work may included safari guiding, feeding, taking care of the animals as well as their shelters. As a result, the lives of these workers and animals are closely interrelated. We have estimated the number of animal working in tourism to be around ten thousand. Approximately 70 per cent of them are huskies and 15 per cent reindeer. These two animal species work mainly in the winter season. Animal welfare is one of the issues that need to be considered in a fast growing Lapland tourism industry.

The concept of animal work

Kendra Coulter just published a book called “Animals, Work and the Promise of Interdisciplinary Solidarity”. She uses the concept of animal work as framework to critically evaluate the work done with, by and for animals. In the book, Kendra challenges the reader to reflect on work involving animals and its implications for both human and animal well-being. In particular, she draws attention to the connections and differences between work performed by people and animals. Although we recognize that human and animal workers are connected, their situation is not similar. For example, animal workers do not have a choice about what they do and where they work. Also, as Kendra points out, laws and policies are in place to better protect people at work. There is lack of legal infrastructure for governing animals’ working lives. If you are interested in human-animal labor relations, this book should be part of your book shelf collection.

Text: JC García-Rosell

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Dog sledding adventures in Pyhä-Luosto

This blog post introduces  Arctic Husky Farm, a Finnish tourism company offering dog sledding adventures in PyhäLuosto area, Lapland.  The post offers a short interview with Katri Nikko. Katri has worked as kennel attendant and safari guide in the company since 2013. Arctic Husky Farm is one of the 10 companies participating in the project “Animals and Responsible Tourism”. They offer dog sledding of different lengths through the beautiful Finnish nature. Arctic Husky Farm has about 180 Alaskan Huskies and 20 Siberian Huskies.

Photo: JC García-Rosell

In the interview, Katri talks about her company, dogs and the way their operations are organized. She also draws attention to the importance of animal welfare in their company. Towards the end of the interview, we had the possibility to visit their puppies, the future stars of Arctic Husky Farm. The interview was conducted by JC García-Rosell on August 11, 2017.

 

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Responsible Finnhorseback riding in Kuusamo

This blog post introduces a company case of responsible animal-based tourism from Kuusamo, Finland.  The post offers a short interview with Sanna Kallunki. She is one of the owners of Ruska Laukka.  The company is situated in Ronivaara farm (Kuusamo), close to Ruka Ski Resort. Ruska Laukka is one of the 11 companies participating in the project “Animals and Responsible Tourism”. In the interview, Sanna talks about her company, company values and passion for Finnhorses. She tells about their variety of horse services.

 

Photo: JC García-Rosell

 

Indeed, Ruska Laukka offers not only horseback riding programs, but also riding lessons and social pedagogic horse activities. In the interview, Sanna stresses the importance of animal welfare in their business operations. For example, their horses live in field shelters and work no more than a specific number of daily working hours. Sanna also tells about their interest in promoting biodiversity and the natural environment. Ruska Laukka’s riding paths go through beautiful forest and field pastures.  Ruska Laukka has been approved by the Equestrian Federation of Finland. The interview was conducted by JC García-Rosell. Date: June 15, 2017.

 

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Animals have enormous value in tourism

In this post, we provide access to an article referring to the project “Animal and Responsible Tourism” and its sister project “Animal Welfare in Tourism Services” in Aamulehti (Finnish newspaper). The article “Animals have enormous value in tourism” was written by José-Carlos García-Rosell and Tarja Salmela and published in Finnish in the June 11, 2017. The article was triggered by our reflections after participating in the Finnish Human-Animal Studies seminar “Valuable Animal” organized by the Finnish Society for Human−Animal Studies in April 2017.

In the article, we draw attention to the value of animals for the tourism industry. For example, we draw attention to the fact that the brand of many destinations are based on animals such as a bull (Spain), reindeer (Finland), panda (China) and Kangaroo (Australia). Also tourism companies used animals as part of their brand value. Moreover, animals play an essential role in the travel experiences of many tourists. A trip to Africa are usually associated to a safari. Similarly, when  thinking of Iceland, one think of whale watching or horseback riding.

Tourists are not indifferent to the treatment of animal used in tourism. More and more tourists are interested in the well-being of the animals they get in touch with. Indeed, Animal welfare is a growing concern in the tourism industry. Global tourism companies like TUI and TripAdvisor have already taken these concerns seriously and are working towards better animal welfare practices in the tourism industry.

 

Aamulehti 11.6.2017

 

Text: JC García-Rosell

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