Global Code of Ethics for Tourism: Lacking a position on animal welfare

Global Code of Ethics for Tourism: Lacking a position on animal welfare

Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism was adopted by the General Assembly of the World Tourism Organization in 1999 and recognized by the United Nations in 2001. Although the Code is not legally binding, it features a frame of reference for the responsible development of tourism in the world. As a voluntary implementation mechanism, it contributes to minimizing the negative impacts of tourism on the environment and society while maximizing the benefits for people living in tourism destinations.

The Code includes 10 articles covering the economic, social, cultural and environmental aspects of tourism and hospitality:

1: Tourism’s contribution to mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societies
2: Tourism as a vehicle for individual and collective fulfillment
3: Tourism, a factor of sustainable development
4: Tourism, a user of the cultural heritage of mankind and contributor to its enhancement
5: Tourism, a beneficial activity for host countries and communities
6: Obligations of stakeholders in tourism development
7: Right to tourism
8: Liberty of tourist movements
9: Rights of the workers and entrepreneurs in the tourism industry
10: Implementation of the principles of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism

The Global Code of Ethics plays a key role in the development of responsible tourism. Despite of the importance of animals in tourism, none of the articles made reference to animals and their welfare.

Article 11 on animal welfare

Professor David Fennell from Brock University has critically evaluated the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism as a frame of reference for responsible tourism. As he argues, the Code fails to fully address the notion of responsible tourism. By neglecting the needs of millions of animals used in the tourism industry for human entertainment and benefit, the Code fails to fully address the notion of responsible tourism. As he points out “being responsible means taking care of both human and animal needs”.

As a result, Professor Fennell recommends that the World Tourism Organization reconvene to amend the Code by adding Article 11 “Respect and welfare of animals used in the tourism industry”. In doing so, Article 11 takes into consideration the welfare needs of wild and domesticated animals according to seven principles (for a detailed overview see Fennell 2016). These principles draw attention to the working conditions of animals, proper welfare standards, confinement of animals for human entertainment and practices that inflict suffering on animals among others. A good overview of this discussion and Article 11 is presented in the video below. The video is base on a presentation given by Professor Fennell at Canisius College for the Ecotourism Symposium on January 18, 2015.

 

Please follow and like us:

Pyhä and Luosto: Huskies, Horses and Reindeers

Pyhä and Luosto

During the second week of January 2017, Animal Tourism Finland visited Pyhä and Luosto ski resorts. These two ski resorts are located in Finnish Lapland just aside the Pyhä-Luosto National Park. Pyhä and Luosto count with a large variety of service providers, including animal-based tourism companies. Animal-based activities such as dog sledding, reindeer safaris and horseback riding are particularly popular among visitors. A simple visit to see the huskies, reindeers and horses is also a very exciting activity.

Off-piste Adventures and Arctic Husky Farm

In this trip, we had the opportunity to visit two of the companies involved in the project. First, we visited Off-Piste Adventures which offers horseback riding activities with Finnhorses and also reindeer safaris. Mia Lappalainen, the owner of the company, was our host. She showed us around the premises and told us about her services and her business philosophy.

Finnhorse
Photo: Mikko Äijälä

Then, we visited Arctic Husky Farm which is specialized in dog sledding. We were welcomed and hosted by Outi Kunnari who is the production supervisor of the company. She gave us a tour around the farm and offered us the possibility to try dog sledding ourselves. It was an awesome experience! During our visit we became familiar with the services and business operations of the company.

Photo: JC García-Rosell

In both companies, we had the opportunity to follow human-animal interactions taking place between the animals, the staff and the tourists. It was an excellent opportunity for getting further insights into the planning of work package 2. It is in work package 2 that we will take a closer look at consumer values in relation to animal-based tourism services. In the video below Minni and Tarja talk about the work ahead. The video was made in the premises of Arctic Husky Farm.

Text: JC García-Rosell

Please follow and like us:

Christmas greetings from Santa Claus and Rudolph

Before leaving for the Christmas holiday, Animal Tourism Finland would like to deliver an important message from Santa Claus and Rudolph who are two of our lovely neighbors here in the City of Rovaniemi, Finland.

A peaceful Christmas to everyone!

 

Please follow and like us:

Responsible Animal Tourism – Polar Lights Tours

In this blog post, we present a company case of responsible animal tourism in Finnish Lapland.  The post offers a short interview with Päivi Hiukka. She is one of the owners of Polar Lights Tours.  The company is situated in Veitservasa, close to Levi Ski Resort, Finland. Polar Lights Tours is one of the 11 companies participating in the project “Animals and Responsible Tourism”.In the interview, Päivi talks about her company and the role that animals play in her business. She also tells about their new horse open shed and the value of certifications for their business operations. Polar Lights Tours is certified by Priimatalli (Prime Stable) and Quality1000. The interview was conducted by Tarja Salmela in October 4, 2016.

 

Please follow and like us:

Webinar 3 – latest happenings in the world, Lapland and the project

This is the third webinar of the project “Animals and Responsible Tourism”. In the webinar JC, Tarja and Mikko talk about some recent developments in tourism industry at the global and local level. TripAdvisor stopping selling tickets to controversial animal attractions, Alitrip announcing the arrivals of thousands of Chinese visitors to Finnish Lapland and the growing awareness of animal welfare among Chinese consumers. They also offer an overview of the work done so far in the project (company visits, workshop and participation in the Lapland Tourism Parliament) as well as the project work to be done in the upcoming weeks (interviews with animal welfare certified tourism companies). The webinar was broadcasted from the Multidimensional Tourism Institute (MTI), University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland on October 31, 2016.

Next webinar will be on November 30, 2016 at 1pm (EET)!

 

Please follow and like us:

Hetta Huskies – project partner

This is a short interview with Pasi Ikonen, one of the owners of Hetta Huskies, which is situated in Hetta, Finland. Hetta Huskies is one of the 11 companies participating in the project “Animals and Responsible Tourism”. In the interview, Pasi talks about his company and animal welfare as the guiding principle of his business philosophy. He also tells about the value of animal welfare certifications for his company. Hetta Huskies received a GOLD award in the Animal Welfare Category in the World Responsible Tourism Awards 2015. The interview was conducted by Tarja Salmela in October 4, 2016.

Please follow and like us:

Workshop on quality and animal welfare in tourism

On October 5, 2016, a three-hour workshop was held in Muonio with the companies participating in the project “Animals and Responsible Tourism”. The workshop took place in the premises of Harriniva, which has over 40 years of experience arranging different tourism services, including husky and reindeer safaris. Seven of the eleven companies participating in the project were represented in the workshop. The representatives of these companies brought into the discussion their valuable experience and expertise on animal-based tourism services (huskies, reindeers, horses and wildlife animals). Before the workshop, participants took a tour around Harriniva’s main sledge dog farm. The tour was an excellent way of preparing ourselves for the workshop discussions.

“Without our animals there would be no business”

The statement above, which was brought up in the workshop, is an excellent reflection on the role of animal welfare in animal-based tourism services. Since animals are the core of the business of many tourism companies operating in Northern Finland, animal welfare is an issue of major relevance. For the companies involved in our project, it’s obvious that animal welfare is strongly linked to service quality, customer satisfaction and employees’ well-being. As the well-being of animals and employees are interrelated, it was pointed out that employees must share the values and philosophy of the company concerning the treatment of animals. This aspect is paramount when the animals are viewed as colleagues or family members, rather than simple objects.

In the workshop, we further reflected on the meaning of quality in relation to animal-based tourism services. Theses reflections can be summarized under three perspectives:

  • Animal’s perspective: the personality and needs (feeding, care, safety, training, etc.) of individual animals is understood and taken into account in relation to their work, working environment and equipment.
  • Customer’s perspective: Safety of the service and clean service environment.
  • Employee’s perspective: Enough resources, transparency of the operations, ongoing monitoring and training possibilities.

In the workshop, it was stressed that “quality starts from animals and their needs”. When the animal is doing well, the customer, employees and entrepreneurs do well.  This understanding of quality demands continuous learning and keeping track of the latest development on animal welfare.

muonio_workshop_5102016

As part of our workshop, we also discussed animal related tourism certifications and quality management systems, which are used at both the national and global level. The discussions revolved around the topics below:

  • Customer awareness of the certifications. Are they only recognized in Finland or are they international?
  • The impact of certificates on the training of employees and their role in recognizing employees’ knowledge and expertise about the animals they are working with.
  • The relationship between existing certifications and the working conditions of animals in Northern Finland. Can the structure and criteria of existing certifications be used for the development of certification suitable for animal-based tourism services implemented in Northern Finland?
  • The notion of service quality and its relation to animal welfare. Should quality be addressed generally or based on the needs and behaviour of particular animal species?
  • Greenwashing – the creation of a misleading perception among customers that a company’s practices are promoting animal welfare. Indeed, some existing certifications were seen as form of greenwashing strategy. In particular those, which certify one particular animal-based service while neglecting how the company performs as a whole in terms of animal welfare.

With these insights, we will continue our research on tourism certifications focusing on animal welfare!

Best greetings from Lapland- the North of Finland!

Tarja, Mikko and José-Carlos

 

Photos: José-Carlos García-Rosell

Please follow and like us:

Responsible tourism includes the consideration of animals

In the article titled “Responsible Tourism includes the consideration of animals” (in Finnish) published in Maaseudun Tulevaisuus on October 12, 2016, José-Carlos García-Rosell and Tarja Salmela draw attention to the increasing importance of animals and their welfare in contemporary society. Consumer demands for the better treatment of animals include not only farm and laboratory animals, but also animals working in the tourism industry. The development of more responsible tourism practices requires the understanding of consumer values in relation to animals and their treatment.

vastuullinen-matkailu_maaseudun-tulevaisuus_12-10-2016

Please follow and like us:

Arctic Reindeer – project partner

This is a short interview with Miia Merkku, CEO of Arctic Reindeer, which is located in Rovaniemi, Finland. Arctic Reindeer is one of the 11 companies participating in the project “Animals and Responsible Tourism”. In the interview Miia talks about her company, tourism services and workmates, the reindeers. She also explains what was the main motivation for joining the project. The interview was conducted by Minni Haanpää in August 31, 2016.

 

 

Please follow and like us:

“The tourist thanks when the husky does well”

This is the first article written about the project “Animal and Responsible Tourism” and its sister project “Animal Welfare in Tourism Services” in a local newspaper. The article was written by Sinikka Pylkkänen (in Finnish) and published in Lapin Kansa on July 8, 2016. The article is based on interviews with project researchers and experts, a husky tourism entrepreneur and a veterinarian working for the local public health department.

The article titled “The tourist thanks when the husky does well” draw attention to the relevance of animals and their welfare in a tourism context. Nowadays tourists are interested in knowing about how the animals are treated and taken care of. The article also points out that animal welfare is an essential aspect of responsible tourism.

matkailija-kiittaa-lapin-kansa_862016

Please follow and like us: